Saturday, March 31, 2012

The Origin of April Fool's Day

The origin of April Fools' Day is a bit of a puzzle, as there are several ideas of where it could have came from in history. Here are several theories about the origin of April Fools' Day:

In 1564, the French reformed its calender to the modern day Julian Calendar, based on the calendar that Julius Caesar created. The change to this calendar involved moving the new year from the end of March to January 1. Some of the people were stubborn, and wanted to keep the old calendar. In order to tease these 'backwards' people who would not change to the Julian Calendar, pranksters would stick paper fish to these stubborn people's backs. This tradition is called Poisson d'Avril (April Fish), which is what the French call April Fools' Day today.

A Flemish Writer published a satirical poem in 1539 about a nobleman who planned to send his servant on aimless errands on April 1st to help prepare for a wedding feast. The servant eventually realises that his master is playing a trick on him and making him run a fool's errand on this day - April 1st.

According to Roman mythological scholars, Pluto (the God of the Dead) abducted Proserpina to the underworld. Proserpina tried to call to her mother for help but Ceres was unable to find her despite being able to hear Proserpina's voice echo for help. This event was commemorated during the ancient Roman times during the festival of Cerealia.

According to a British legend, the town of Gotham, Nottinghamshire, was also known as the 'town of fools'. In the 13th century, anywhere the King walked upon became public property. The townspeople of Gotham heard that King John was going to travel through their town. As they did not want to lose their private property to the King, they refused him entry into Gotham. In anger, the King ordered his army to go to Gotham - only to find that the residents had engaged in weird and wonderful activities such as drowning fish in an attempt to scare off the King and his army. The King and his soldiers declared the Gotham townspeople as crazy so they were not punished.

Although the true origin of April Fools' Day may never be known, Historians say that it most likely came from continental Europe before spreading to Britain, despite the British legend that took place in Gotham.

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The History of April Fools' Day

In certain countries, the April Fools' jokes must be made before noon on 1 April otherwise it is the prankster who becomes the April Fool.

The origin of the customs of the day are shrouded in mystery. Some believe it is likely to be a relic of festivities held to mark the vernal equinox. These celebrations of the first days of spring, began on the 25th of March, and ended on the 2nd of April. Certainly there is some evidence to suggest that April 1st was observed as a general festival in pagan Britain.

More commonly, the customs are associated with the switch to the Gregorian calendar in France during the sixteenth century.

Historically, many parts of the world, celebrated April 1st as New Year's Day - due to it's relationship with the start of Spring.

France was one of the first countries to adopt January 1 as their official New Year's Day, by decree of Charles IX in 1564. This was before the 1582 adoption of the Gregorian calendar.

The gifts and traditions which had been the feature of the 1st of April switched to January 1st. However, many people either refused to accept the change or did not hear about the news several years. Those who still celebrated April 1 were seen as 'fools' by the general populace, and fair game to be the butt of pranks and tricks were known as a "poisson d'avril" or "April fish."

The traditions spread to England and Scotland in the eighteenth century, and was brought to the American colonies by both the English and French.

The tradition of April Fools' Day, also known as All Fools' Day is observed in many countries on April 1.

Generally the aim of the day is trying to play a practical joke on a victim who becomes known as an April Fool. The practical jokes can range from simple to elaborate. Whatever the trick, the prankster usually ends it by shouting to his victim, "April Fool!"

April Fool's day around the world
Scotland In Scotland, April Fool's Day is celebrated over two days - day one is called Taily Day and the second day is devoted to pranks involving the buttocks. The "kick me" sign can be traced back to Taily Day.

Mexico Mexico's equivalent to April Fool's Day is on December 28th. Originally, the day was a sombre remembrance of the slaughter of the innocent children by King Herod, though over the years, it has evolved into a light-hearted commemoration involving pranks and tricks.

France In France the April fool is known as 'poisson d'avril' (April fish). It is not known what exactly the fish refers to, but it may be related to the sun leaving Pieces (the fish) at the start of April. A part of the tradition in France was the placing of dead fish unknowingly on the backs of friends. Today, real fish have been replaced with fish-shaped paper shapes that children try to sneak onto the back of their friends' shirts. Shops and bakeries also offer special fish-shaped sweets.

Netherlands The Dutch have separate reasons for celebrating the 1st of April. In 1572, the Netherlands were under Spanish rule. On April 1, 1572 Dutch rebels seized the town of Den Briel. This marked the start of the general civil rising against the Spanish across the Netherlands. The Duke of Alba was the commander of the Spanish army at the time, and he could not prevent the uprising from gathering momentum. Bril is the Dutch word for glasses, so it was said that "Alba lost his glasses." The Dutch commemorate this with jokes and humour on the first of April.

Office Holidays lists important national and public holidays around the world in a calendar format. All featured holidays have detailed background information. Visit for more details on hundreds of other holidays.

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Friday, March 30, 2012

The Top Five Most Popular Patron Saint Medals

Patron saint medals are a very popular thing to wear as a necklace, or to keep on your person at all times. People feel like the saint protects them, helps them through their day, or is simply there to comfort them when they have their medal on them. Some people simply wear patron saint medals because they were named after a certain saint. Whatever the reason may be, people all over the world wear these medals and there are some that have become more popular over the years than others.

5.) Saint Patrick - Saint Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland. His feast day falls every year on March 17th and is a pretty well celebrated holiday for those of Irish descent and many others as well. Patrick's story is a eventful one, he was captured by Druids when he was just fourteen and taken from his home in Britain to Ireland. Patrick prayed nearly all day long while he was held in captivity in Ireland and forced to perform labor there. He became extraordinarily close with God and would one day escape from Ireland when God told him to flee to the coast. He found sailors there who took him home to Britain. Patrick would become a priest while he was home and would also be ordained a bishop. He went back to Ireland to try and rid them of the pagans and Druids that overwhelmed their country. Patrick made it his goal to convert as many Irish as possible to the ways of Christianity, which he had great success doing. A shamrock is typically associated with Saint Patrick because he utilized it as a way to explain the Holy Trinity to the Irish. Each leaf of the shamrock stood for either God, Jesus, or the Holy Spirit.

4.) Saint Thomas Aquinas - Saint Thomas Aquinas is the patron saint of universities and students because of his love for knowledge and educating others. His feast day falls on January 28th each year. Saint Thomas was put under the watch of the Benedictines of Monte Casino in his youth. He learned faster than anybody they had seen before and had the patience of a full grown individual when he was just a boy. Once Thomas was old enough to make his own life decisions he chose to join the Order of Saint Dominic. His family did not support his decision and this hurt Thomas inside, but he knew he was making the right choice. Saint Thomas studied under Saint Albert and was one of the best students Albert ever had. Saint Thomas is remembered as one of the great theologians of the Catholic Church.

3.) Saint John the Baptist - Saint John the Baptist died a martyr just like Jesus. He told all of his followers about Jesus and how he truly was the son of God. John was the son of Zachary and Elizabeth, and he was conceived even though Elizabeth was quite old at the time. God sent the angel Gabriel to inform Zachary that his wife would become pregnant and that is exactly what happened despite the terrible odds. John is best known for baptizing men and women in the Jordan River, most notably Jesus himself was baptized by Saint John. John knew precisely who Jesus was and was flattered that Jesus came to him to be baptized and not the other way around. Herod was the ruler at that time and was not a fan of how much power Saint John the Baptist had over large masses of people. He had him arrested on false accusations and beheaded for no good reason. He suffered for his ever strong faith in Christianity and Jesus. Saint John the Baptist is the last prophet from the Old Testament and was the final prophet before Jesus Christ.

2.) Saint Michael - Saint Michael is the patron saint of police officers and his feast day falls on September 29th each year. Saint Michael's name is almost always followed by "the archangel" because that is what he is. He was the leading archangel in the battle in heaven between the angels and Satan and his followers. He is known as one of the great protectors of the Catholic Church forever, and that is why he is the patron saint of police officers. The Greeks used to hold Michael to a higher regard than the rest of the archangels because of his heroic actions displayed in the battle against Satan.

1.) Saint Christopher - Saint Christopher died a martyr just like Saint John the Baptist. Saint Christopher died in the 3rd century when he was asked to take part in a pagan sacrifice and he refused. One legend of Saint Christopher is when he wanted to please God so he asked a local hermit what he could do to have that be done. The hermit told him to fast and prayer, but Saint Christopher was unable to fast. The hermit then told him to help people cross a nearby river because many had died trying to. He found a little boy who needed help and put him on his shoulders. The boy was unbelievably heavy and the water seemed to move much faster than Christopher anticipated. When he reached the other side he was completely out of breath and tired, the boy turned to him and told him that he had just experienced the weight of the world upon his shoulders and that he was Christ. He let him know that his work was greatly appreciated and promptly vanished. Saint Christopher is the most common patron saint medal to see because he is featured on so many of them. He is shown on medals including basketball, golf, tennis, gymnastics, cheer leading, figure skating, volleyball, and hockey players.

Erin Donnelly is a featured author at the best online store for all your Catholic needs, The Catholic Gift Shop. At the store you will find patron saint medals, Catholic rosaries, Baptism, Confirmation, and Christening gifts for anybody you know. However, The Catholic Gift Shop is not only limited to these items they have much, much more to offer as well. The Catholic Gift Shop is the site to visit for all of your religious needs!

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Descendants of Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria was one of the most important royal of England. The royal descendants of Queen Victoria became the rulers of Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Spain after the outbreak of World War I. Some of the descendants of Queen Victoria have gone on to become important royals in history of England. You can count an emperor, a king emperor, an empress consort and four queens consort in that list. Due to this reason, Victoria was also nicknamed as the "the grandmother of Europe'.

The direct descendants of Queen Victoria are as mentioned below:

o Edward VII was born on 9 November 1841. He was married to Princess Alexandra of Denmark, daughter of Christian IX. They had 5 children together namely Prince Albert, George V, Princess Louise of Great Britain and Ireland, Princess Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland and Princess Maud of Great Britain and Ireland.

o Princess Victoria was born on 21 November 1840, and she was married to Friedrich III. Their descendants were William II and the Princess Sophie of Prussia.

o Princess Alice of Great Britain and Ireland was born on 25 April 1843 and was married to Osborne Ludwig IV. One of his descendents was Alix Hesse, who was born on 6 June 1872.

o Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was born on 6 August 1844 and was married to Maria Alexandrovna of Russia. Their direct descendant was Princess Marie of Edinburgh, who was born on 29 October 1875.

o Princess Beatrice was born on 14 April 1857 ,and she was married to Osborne, Isle of Wight. Her direct descendant was Princess Viktoria Eugenia von Battenberg, who was born on 24 October 1887.

Pauline Go is an online leading expert in education industry. She also offers top quality articles like:
Famous People Biography, Bill Gates Biography

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Tuesday, March 27, 2012

The Zombies Through the History

A zombie is often a reanimated dead or a mindless human being. In the middle ages it was commonly believed that the souls of the dead will return to the earth and haunt the living. The zombies appear in several other cultures worldwide like China, India, Japan, the Pacific and the Native Americans.

Haitian Vodou is a religion from the Caribbean country of Haiti. As a part of the Vodou religion they believe that magician called bokors can revive the recently dead. According to the tenets of Vodou, a dead person can be revived by a sorcerer and the zombie remains under his control because they have no will on their own.

Some of them use blood and hair from the victims in conjunction with voodoo dolls to zombify them. There are also and some other methods of zombification which involve a specially prepared concoction of mystical herbs in addition to human and animal parts. When the bokor performs the ancient voodoo rite, he takes possession of the victim's soul, and replacing it with the Ioa that he controls.

The "trapped" soul usually is placed in a small clay jar, which is wrapped in a fragment of the victim's clothing, or some other personnel possession owned by the victim in life, and then the jar is hidden in a secret place which is known only by the bokor.

When the zombie is revived he has no power of speech and his memory is gone. They are easy to control and usually are used by the bokors as slaves. According to the Haitian folklore, feeding salt to a zombie will return it to its sense.

Then the zombies often attack the bokor who created it, or returns to its place of burial and dies. Although zombies can be traced to Haiti within the last few centuries, older myths have some similarities to zombies.

The Epic of Gilgamesh of ancient Sumer includes zombies. Ishtar in the fury of vengance says:

" Father give me the Bull of Heaven,

So he can kill Gilgamesh in his dwelling.

If you do not give me the Bull of Heaven,

I will knock down the Gates of the Netherworld,

I will smash the doorposts, and leave the doors flat down,

And will let the dead go up to eat the living!

And the dead will outnumber the living!"

Other older literature in which zombies are mentioned are: "One Thousand and One Nights", "Frankestein", various Gothic Romanticism by Edgar Allan Poe and lots of others. Not only books are written also and movies are filmed. But enough for the history of the zombies rare are the people who actually believe in them.

Nowadays besides the films with zombies also are popular and the zombie games. There are actually a lot of games with zombies, and if you hate to see them on the TV screen maybe you will want to play with them.

Also the games with zombies are divided into several categories like: Zombie Games, Weird Games, Torture Games, and some other scary games. So I will say it again if you are not blood lover and you are too scared to watch all those creepy faces on the screens, and despite all that you want to know more about the zombies, you can search some online games to play or maybe some zombie related book to read.

Oh and one last thing sometimes the zombie games can be funny, not all of them are scary. So the choice is yours. Make the right one.

Hello my name is Marija - I am from Bitola Macedonia. I consider writing to be my passion and I write about things that interest me.

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The Origins of Voodoo

An old and often misunderstood religion, Voodoo is one of many pre-Christian faiths that can be traced to all the way to West Africa and Haiti. Even though it has been depicted as evil by Hollywood and the mainstream media, many of the deities and practices are in no way used for demonic or negative purposes. Instead, they share similar characteristics to Catholicism and some Pagan faiths. You have one God, but multiple deities that govern over nature, emotions, and even certain animals. Where Voodoo gets a bad rap the most is for its rituals and negative uses in certain regions of the world.

Ancestor worship in Voodoo is very prevalent in prayers and rituals, but with a twist. Instead of an afterlife, followers believe that their dead ancestors are still living among them as spirits. Aside from that, the practices and rituals vary from one congregation to another. Many still believe in animal sacrifices to show gratitude for a successful hunt, harvest, or other joyous occasions. One that stays solid is the appointment of Queen Mothers (similar to bishops or imams, but made to provide spiritual needs for their respected family clans). They are typically the elderly women in the clans and given a title based on their most respected ancestors (much like how the Pope is given his).

Animal sacrifices may turn some non-believers green in the face, but other rituals hold a more tolerable place in Voodoo. Special talismans, or "fetishes", are sometimes made from or are dried animal parts that help recharge a worshipper's soul or provided for certain purposes (ie: protection for evil). Other talismans are created from plants or other natural resources. The famous "Voodoo Doll" is one of them, but it's far from the doll-shaped pin cushion used in TV and movies.

Where Voodoo has been known for its negative uses is in the American southeast and any country that brought slaves from West Africa. During captivity, many practitioners would cast hexes and spells on their owners and bosses when their fellow worker was beaten or killed. One of the signs that they were used was a black X that can be found on or around old slave quarters. Some slaves even went as far as defacing free pendants given by Christian missionaries to show honor towards certain female deities. Many of those pendants were made of gold or silver at the time, making them last for generations.

Today, Voodoo is a minority religion that has survived and kept a strong following since. It is still prevalent in West Africa to a certain degree, but Haiti and the U.S. (specifically Louisiana and other southern states) have the most well-known presence when the religion is mentioned to non-believers. Like other religions, Voodoo has and can be used for both good and evil purposes. However, many go with the first due to the consequences that can arise with the second (having a hex backfire is one of them). Otherwise, Voodoo as a whole can be just as complex and positive as other organized faiths, but with its own set of beliefs and deities to worship.

Learn more about voodoo, learn voodoo spells and love spells at

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Make a Guy Fall in Love - Love Voodoo Tips That Work

Does your heart yearn to make a guy fall in love with you? Do you dream of romance day and night? Do you wonder if there is a way to attract men that will make them fall hard and stay? There is no "voodoo" magic spell that has been proven to work, but if you stick with these basic facts about male psychology, you can make a guy fall in love with you just like magic.

It may not sound like the best dating advice, but the first thing you need to do is choose carefully who you want to starting dating. Is there a guy that every girl wants to be seen with and will do anything they can to snag a date with? Are you one of those girls? Maybe it's time you changed your strategy.

The guys that every girl wants are the guys you should play hard to get with. If you're too easy to catch, he may give you a thrill for a date or two, but it will lead to heartbreak in the end. Those kinds of guys never see beneath the surface attraction of a girl until one comes around who doesn't seem to care. If a guy like that comes into your life, play hard to get if you want him to fall for you.

Whoever he is, if you want to make a guy fall in love with you, you need to make him want you for something besides sex. When you're out on a date, get to know him. Ask him about his interests. Make the date fun and exciting for both you and him. If your first date is a memorable one, he will feel that you fulfill him in a way that other girls cannot.

There will be times when he will need someone to talk to - someone he can trust. Be that someone for him. Put your own interests aside and listen to him wholeheartedly. You will become his confidante and he will find himself falling in love with you.

The "voodoo" of love consists of three things: desire, trust and emotional fulfillment. If you want to make a guy fall in love with you, mix these three ingredients in equal measures and you will see the magic work!

To learn more, click Fall in Love and learn Love Mistakes that 99% of women make without knowing.

This article is contributed by Tina Jones from the Unforgettable Woman Publishing Team. She works together with founder Alexandra Fox and writes dating/relationship articles for women. You can find more about Unforgettable Woman Publishing by visiting their website.

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How To Make Different Voodoo Dolls

It is known only to a few people, but Voodoo dolls come in many forms. The only dolls that most of us are familiar of are those made out of cloth. Little did we know that we can actually make poppets or dolls out of paper, wax, wood or clay.

Most people do not know that these dolls can also bring benefits to the user. In fact, they can be used for healing and maintaining good health. Some people also believe it to bring good fortune, love and protection from any curses or bindings. By using them, people can control energy in a variety of ways.

One uncommon doll is one that is made of wax. To make it, you must have softened wax and mold a shape out of it. It is essential that you place oil in your hands so that it is easier to manipulate the wax. Once the molding procedure is done, you can already decorate it with buttons, stones or even beads of your own design. Adding hair or garment is optional, but not really necessary. Yet, this may help you imagine the recipient more easily because the doll seems to be a personal replica of the person.

The second unusual doll is the wood poppet doll. Making this is relatively easy. All you have to do is draw a figure on a clean piece of parchment paper or card and cut it out. Similarly with the wax doll, you can decorate it yourself and you may draw symbols or attach a photo of the intended recipient. These add more personal touches to the doll.

Next, who would have thought that Voodoo dolls can be made out of wood? Specifically, you will need a soft wood for this kind of doll so that carving figure from it will not be difficult. Using sticky glue put some hair using your yarn, rope, or anything that may fancy your desires. You can also use paint on the doll's clothes or face.

Last but not the least, the clay dolls may or may not be done easily. It can be done easily if you use the soft kind of clay (the ones we play with while we are young), while it can be difficult if you use the clay that is meant to be hardened during the final process. Any way you make it, it can still be considered a voodoo doll. But, remember to put a hollow space inside the clay to fill with special herbs or draw special symbols to seal. This will enhance the effectiveness of the doll to the intended recipient as you are adding personal touches. Just like all the other dolls, you may paint, adorn, or place the recipient's picture to the doll itself.

There may be different versions of dolls. Even if the doll you make is not the typical one, it will still work for you if you know the right attitude, directions and spells. If you want to be better in casting spells, practice. If you want to know about them, research. If you desire to gain more knowledge, seek help from advisors or experts. Voodoo, indeed, is a very vast area wherein beginners need patience in order to fully comprehend it.

If you want to learn more on how to make a voodoo doll I advice you to visit the voodoo doll spells site.

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Learning How To Do Voodoo Doll Spells

Raising the dead was only one amazing facet of Voodoo doll spells. This great and impossible advantage of witchcraft walked in such astounding measure that miracle happen. In this lifetime, this onetime practice would give new meaning to the word "adventure." Adventure's only requirement? - "Only believe!"

To voodooist, simple obedience to what one believed was not an extraordinary feat; it was simply the fruit of it. These own faith was said to be unflinching and sometimes ruthless. More than ever, voodoos offer great and marvelous miracles beyond natural gasp. However, this advance spell of raising the dead requires devotion and strong faith and anointing. Citing you this introduction does not lead you on how will you raise the dead, but will give you the idea that voodoo doll spells are a strong weapon that will unleashed the impossibilities. This is not magic; this is the black art that ancient Africans practice.

Undoubtedly, some may say that voodoo doll spells are rubbish, let them think that way. The skills and power given in voodoo dolls are ecstatic and only few can have the open heart to practice it. Do you want to control someone's mind? Or cause physical and emotional attraction? Here is one voodoo doll spells I have learned from a charismatic person I know who owns a school, a mansion and who happens to be a founder of a particular cultic religion. First, you may need a black and white chalk, a close room, ten black big candles, and a voodoo practice doll, a bowl of swine blood, six pins or needles, a white blank paper and a pencil. Now after gathering these materials, use the black chalk and form a circle with the use of your hand and body as a compass, the circle should be big enough for a one person. Second, with the white chalk, you draw intersecting triangles inside the circle, forming a Wiccan Pentacle. Third, surround your self with ten black candles; place it along the circle's line. Light each candle carefully; fourth, place yourself at the center with the bowl of swine blood. Then hold the voodoo doll with your left hand and dip the first needle on the bowl of swine blood and put in on the doll's head part.

Do all six needles, stick it around the forehead. As you finish doing so, repeat the words "Shijii Daktum Moere Belzebaab" six times and make your personal command or wish. Then lastly, with the blank paper and pencil, fill up the whole paper back to back with your target's full name, it is important to stay inside the circle and finish the ritual. Your mind should be strong enough to constantly think of the person while performing every step. Afterwards, you fold the paper six times and place it on the bowl filled with blood. To close the ritual, each ten candles should have a drop on the bowl. The bowl should be placed in the middle of the star and left for five nights. Every night you allow a drop of black candle on the bowl. Then after five nights, you place it under your bed so the person will dream and think of you when you sleep. Wait for the blood to be solidified and you may discard it.

However, this set-up is ideal at best. This is because most people prefer the easy spells and want something instantaneous.

I have seen a website that promotes Voodoo in a positive way. If you want to learn more how to do voodoo doll spells, you can visit

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Friday, March 23, 2012

Conspiracy Theory Case Study - Global Elite Wants to Remove Two Thirds of the Population

If you are one to enjoy conspiracy theories, perhaps you listen to late-night radio. For a number of years I had done this while traveling around the country because I enjoyed driving at night when there was no traffic. I would simply turn on the late-night radio, and listen to whatever tall tales and conspiracy theories they could come up with. Interestingly enough, most of them are plausibly deniable, and some of these crazy stories may actually be true, or at least parts of them are true enough to keep the natives restless. Okay so, let's talk about one of these conspiratorial stories as a case study.

Perhaps you've heard that conspiracy that "The New World Order" is going to take over the world, and a group of elites, billionaires, and the proverbial Rothschild family, and all of these sorts of folks are planning the demise of billions of people on the planet. Because they say there are too many humans, too many mouths to feed, and all those people simply aren't needed. Well, when you take apart a conspiracy theory, you have to look at all the evidence, and try to reason if it even makes sense. And you have to decide who gains by such an action, and who loses.

Now then, if there are fewer people in the world, then we don't need as much production capacity, we don't need as many people working, and therefore all those people aren't needed. Question is what to do with them. You could wait a few generations, and see that they don't have so many offspring, or you can find ways to see their early demise perhaps from disease, lack of food, war, or some cataclysmic event. Mother Nature has done a good job that wiping out scores of people, but not on the scale it would take to get rid of let's say two thirds of the population which is how this conspiracy theory plays it.

Now then, the reality is that human beings are a pretty resilient species, and they're pretty hard to get rid of. It's hard to kill them off by disease, and they seem to be smart enough not to let wars get too far out of hand or kill too many people. World War II killed a significant number of people, but compared to the number of people on the planet, well, not so much. Bird Flu could be significant, if it were custom tailored for the most ruthless of pandemics, but humans again are pretty smart, and would probably rise to the occasion with the production of massive numbers of vaccine kits. Then logistically, they find a way to get them to each and every person, and therefore stop it pretty quick. Yes, it could kill a significant number of people, but you'd be surprised, as humans adapt quite quickly, their bodies are incredible, and they just aren't easy to get rid of.

Further, in looking at this conspiracy theory you have to ask yourself if it makes sense. If the global elite can control more people, there will be a more abundance for them at the top, and more production and economic activity as well. They stand to gain by expansion of the balloon or pie, as they will always hold a greater percentage. Therefore, this particular conspiracy theory doesn't really make any sense. Thus, it probably fails. So it's time you came up with a better one. Indeed I hope you will please consider all this and think on.

Lance Winslow has launched a new provocative series of eBooks; Science Fiction Shorts. Lance Winslow is a retired Founder of a Nationwide Franchise Chain, and now runs the Online Think Tank;

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Ghost Hunting Equipment - Commonly Used Ghost Hunter Tools

In order to come across as a professional in paranormal investigations and ghost hunting, you must have specific ghost hunting equipment to assist you in your work. There are standard ghost hunter tools as well as newer equipment and software developed for the modern investigator.

Below Is A Brief Guide On Ghost Hunting Equipment And Tools:

Pen and Notebook: These might seem to be obvious things but they are usually ignored and underused by many investigators. Nonetheless, a notebook and a pen or pencils are the best method of recording minor case details before, during and after an investigation. This may include historic information from the client, dates and times of strange occurrences and other unrecorded details of the case.

Flashlights: A paranormal investigator does not have a cameraman to assist them in recording their activities and movements. They frequently work in dark locations such as basements and underground tunnels which do not have natural lighting. A flashlight is therefore indispensable for an investigator. Besides, it may also assist in alerting one on the presence of ghosts or spirits. Paranormal Investigators have a theory that ghosts draw energy from their surrounding to manifest themselves. Thus, a flashlight switching itself off might be a sign of other entities.

Batteries: Extra batteries are a must since most of the ghost hunter tools and equipment run on batteries.

Digital Cameras- Paranormal investigators and ghost hunters can not leave their cameras behind. These are useful not only in capturing ghostly manifestations but also to store mementos of case studies from different locations. Digital cameras could be the most important piece of ghost hunting equipment you will need.

Tape Recorders: Tape recorders are essential and utilised by all paranormal investigators. They are used to record electronic voice phenomena (EVP) while working in haunted sites. EVP otherwise referred to as disembodied voices is characterized by sounds and voices that are heard during playback of various types of magnetic tapes.

EMF Detectors- Electromagnetic fields are fundamental forces of nature. The EMF detector is used to measure energy being emitted by stationary objects. Paranormal Investigators and ghost hunters theorize that ghosts and spirits disrupt EMF and can cause bleeps on the detector. High EMF readings in areas where there are few electrical gadgets can be indicators of potential paranormal activity. If there are plenty of electrical gadgets however, it may rule out the presence of ghosts and spirits.

Other Ghost Hunter Tools

The above ghost hunter tools and equipment are just the basic kit used by paranormal investigators. There are other specialized equipment and ghost hunting software that are just as useful and necessary for the success of your venture.

Finding it difficult to keep all of your ghost hunting investigations in order? Visit: Ghost Hunting Equipment []

Having some software to store all of your investigation data and ghost information can help you drastically when your trying to analyze results.

Looking for some paranormal investigation software to help you with your ghost hunting? Visit: Ghost Hunter Tools []

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Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Akhenaton The Pharaoh That Egyptians Tried To Forget

The Pharaoh Akhenaton, does not stand in good relation to the Pharaohs before or immediately after him. He was different and during his reign he changed the very thing that was important for Egyptians, their idea of spirituality and God or at least the illusive force they adored but could not see. The act to make this force tangible would later cost him his historic place in Egyptian history but would also put him on a podium of his own.

As the son and ruler after Amenhotep III, he led the Egyptians from 1358 until 1340 and in addition to this married the stunning Nefertiti, a woman whose profile is imprinted in our minds because of a bust made by an artist of that time. Akhenaton did not have the familiar facial appearance of the Pharaohs before him and looking at his pointed head you are able to see why alien believers think he may just be their proof that aliens did indeed visit us.

But the human Akhenaton was not only a pharaoh hoping to win wars to establish his authority and find respect from his devotees. Deep inside him this ruler was very religious. Only his thoughts of religion differed from anything Egyptians grew up with. Instead of the many Gods they worshipped, he began to worship one god, Aten and brought him into greater prominence, until Aten ultimately became the primary deity of Egypt. This alone makes this man remarkable because establishing a new religion, one so different to what the people believed in can't have been easy. He spent his reign worshipping his god and composed hymns to honour this deity. He ignored pleas from his outposts pleading for help against invasions, and he seems to absolutely have ignored the signs which clearly showed his idyllic rule were definitely crumbling fast.

Akhenaton ordered all the temples to worship the solar god and forbid the Egyptian people to worship the deities they worshipped in the past. It could not have been easy if you still believed in Amun to observe his holy places defiled. Many of his most trusted followers probably have already started to plan the worshipping of the earlier gods immediately after his death. The reason for Akhenaton 's loss of life is uncertain but just after his death, this next appointed Smenkhkare also died, and then the young Tutankhamen was forced to be the pharaoh.

If Tutankhamen himself or possibly a prominent priest persuaded him to follow the path back to the ancient gods of Egypt is just not certain. However he did and soon the monotheism religion established by Akhenaton ended up being forgotten in Egypt. Akhenaton's tomb has also been found, but there is no evidence to guess that he was ever entombed there. His end is some sort of mystery.

While the Pharaoh Amenhoteph IV might not have been given the recognition he deserves by the generations of Egyptians after him, modern history did. His idea about religion and god makes him stand out from all the other rulers before and after him. In the end Egypt as a nation soon forgot him as his physical legacy was deleted by his own son.

Lee ang is an online writer with an interest in astronomy and ancient cultures.You will find his fiction e-book Ozymandeus online and if you want it you can email him at

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Friday, March 9, 2012

Against The Grain: Ancient Astronauts And Modern Ufonauts: Who's Who And What's What

When it comes down to tracing your history, from the Big Bang event 13.7 billion years ago up through and including yourself at your address, well the standard model is pretty straight forward. The one factor that tends to be missing from the standard texts however are the influences that other life forms, extraterrestrials, have had on that Big-Bang- to-you big picture. All and sundry ignore this factor; I don't.


When it comes to the 'gods' (my term but in reality extraterrestrials) from ancient to modern times, we have...

Ancient: The Polytheistic gods are universal in human mythology regardless of culture, race, geographical settlements, etc.; they collectively represent a division of godly responsibilities toward that specific culture or geographical area. Each area commands a separate pantheon of gods. For example, the Norse lands (Scandinavia) have Odin, Thor, Loki, etc. They are akin to a parliament where you have a prime minister (head god), a cabinet (senior gods) and backbenchers (minor deities). So you have an agricultural god, a weather god, and so on.

Ancient: The Monotheistic God (but probably just one of the polytheistic gods whose jurisdiction was the Middle East) and clan have become the dominant deity (with associated hangers on) within the western world. Unfortunately, despite Christian propaganda that God is a moral, just, loving deity, His biography, as given in the Biblical Old Testament, is anything but. God is shown to have all the same sorts of emotional attributes as the polytheistic gods had. Translated, God possesses the normal run of emotions and behaviors that not only the gods had but that humans have. In other words, God has all the morals of an alley cat! Further, none of the supernatural powers exhibited by God (or clan, like Jesus Christ or J.C.) are unique to God. Anything God can do, the polytheistic gods can do too.

Ancient: Jesus Christ (J.C.) is one of many minor 'deities' born on Earth and the only known example to the best of my knowledge of a 'god' being executed by humans. So why didn't our supposedly all powerful God-The-Father step in and prevent this execution? God hasn't exactly been shy in interfering in human affairs before this event. That 'God' didn't intervene isn't surprising. A common theme in mythology is the father killing off, or attempting to have eliminated, all male offspring that could down the track prove threatening to dad's own power base. The Greek god Zeus himself nearly suffered this fate but escaped and ultimately got his revenge on dear old daddy.

Ancient: Angels are more minor 'deities' under 'God's' jurisdiction (wings and haloes and harps are human embellishments). Not all 'angels' were happy under, and with 'God's' style of command and thus some staged a mutiny - which failed. There are other examples in mythology of 'gods' revolting against their peers and superiors - turf wars and power struggles were the norm way back when.

Ancient: Fairy-Folk (including elves, etc.) were another extraterrestrial clan whose relationship with the 'gods' isn't entirely clear - colleagues or did they have separate agendas? These beings were later known as the Incubi and Succubi and today are akin to the 'Greys' of UFO abduction lore.

Ancient: Various mythological beasties, associated with the gods and/or God are of two types: There are the half-and-halves (half human - half animal) who are among the end products of ET's genetic engineering experiments. Then there are the dragons and the other non-godlike entities found in all mythologies. I find them akin to human's companion animals. Translated, dragons, etc. were pets of the gods - both being of course extraterrestrial in origin.

Modern: The 'Nordics' a.k.a. the 'Space Brothers' - Of the modern reported UFO entities, these angelic-like near perfect physical specimens appear to be the one group that likes to spread around New Age Hippy-style philosophy. It's not religion per say as much as an appeal to 'cosmic brotherhood'. The 'Nordics' target audience were the 'contactes' (mainly of the 1950's), usually relatively simple folk who often trumped up their limited education by calling themselves 'Professor' or 'Doctor'. Though the contactees were nearly rubbished by anyone with an IQ over 50, the contactees might have had the wool pulled over their eyes as their 'Nordics' could have been that subdivision of the gods known as 'trickster' gods. As the name implies, they like to pull practical jokes, not all of which are funny ha-ha.

Modern: The 'Greys' tend to be associated as the mainstream of UFO occupants, in particular when it comes to alien abduction cases. They are fairly short, thin, with spindly legs and arms, but large heads, small noses, slit-like mouths, overall hairless, but have striking eyes, usually oval which tend to wrap-around the skull to quite elongated degree. The basic image has certainly struck a quite responsive chord with the general public as if it represents an image of a repressed memory - like that of an actual abduction. The 'Greys' seem to have something akin to Star Trek's transporter beam, or beaming technology, and like the 'gods' of old, have the ability to be seen and heard by just those they want to be seen and heard by. That said, descriptions of Ufonauts vary widely, but again, the 'Greys' tend to predominate.

An interesting question as hinted above is whether or not these various alien races/extraterrestrial civilizations are akin to a Star Trek 'Federation' in the sense of working together for the common cause, or working apart; do all and sundry have a collective agenda, or separate agendas, or like human nations, have some common goals but also separate and apart goals.


The top or high echelon of the 'gods' (including 'God') are usually associated with the sky or space.

They often get around in assorted flying vehicles, like aerial 'chariots'.

The 'gods' and Fairy-Folk live in or come from rather exotic abodes, often termed in mythology, the 'Otherworld'. Even Heaven could be termed an 'Otherworld' (though maybe 'Heaven' was the name given to Captain God's and crew's starship that transported them to here). Mythological 'Otherworlds' are actually extra-solar planets.

From a human perspective, the so-called mythological beings (what I strongly suspect are really flesh-and-blood extraterrestrials) are for all practical purposes immortals. Of course they aren't really immortal, only apparently so when compared to our three score and ten. Lengthy life-spans, whether natural or augmented by ET's advanced technology, are of relevance for it allows our aliens to get from there (those 'Otherworlds' wherever they are in space) to here with no more of a yawn than humans taking the cross-town bus.

One universal trait with respect to the polytheistic 'gods' and the Fairy-Folk is their ability to have selected invisibility to whomever they don't wish to be seen by; conversely they can appear to one individual only, even with that individual existing within a crowded setting. Now either a being reflects light or it doesn't. If it does, then it should be visible to everyone. If that's not the case then the only other viable explanation is some sort of at-a-distance mind-control. If that's not possible then everything crumbles like a deck of cards because the weakest link in the chain has snapped. However, it's such a widely reported happening in mythology and ufology that the truth is out there even if the rational explanation thus far isn't.

The mythology/ufology parallel is that when it comes to alien abductions phenomena, there's obviously some sort of mind control at work since abductees don't tend to fight their abductions and they usually have little or no memory that anything out of the ordinary happened after-the-fact. That would remain the case were it not for that vague (can't quite pin my finger on it) sense of unease, missing time noted, and/or physical evidence like unexplained scars or waking up with your nightclothes on inside-out or back-to-front.

The polytheistic 'gods' apparently have the ability to shape-shift. But then again a seed will shape-shift into a plant; a caterpillar into a butterfly, so it's only the relative matter of degree of shape-shifting ability at stake here.

These god-like extraterrestrials can perform apparent supernatural like miracles, but so could 21st Century humans with 21st Century technology if showed to our ancestors say 8000 to 2000 years ago. Further, these so-called 'miracles' normally associated with God and J.C.; well, let's just say than anything God or J.C. could do, the polytheistic 'gods' could do as well - they even did tricks that would put God and J.C. to shame in any carnival sideshow.

These god-like extraterrestrials are powerful, but hardly all-powerful or invincible.

These god-like extraterrestrials are knowledgeable, without being all-knowing.

These god-like extraterrestrials have moral standards equal to or less than the average human and tend to treat us much like we treat the lesser terrestrial life forms we associate with - they (lesser terrestrial life forms) are property to us; we're property to them - the extraterrestrial 'gods'.

And it doesn't take much knowledge or logic to show that the Biblical monotheistic God of the Old Testament can't be all-powerful, all-knowing, and especially all-loving for His morals rate somewhere south of Hitler, Stalin and any other tyrant you care to name. The proof of that pudding comes direct from the texts of the 'Good' Book itself.

Not only God, but ditto the 'gods', and the Fairy-Folk often interfere in human affairs, and not always to our benefit by any stretch of the imagination.

Some of the 'gods', even the Fairy-Folk, have a sense of humor, albeit not always of the ha-ha kind as hinted at above. These court jesters are collectively called the 'trickster' gods (Loki, for example), and they are found throughout all cultures and their associated mythologies. I suggest that in our modern era, there are still 'trickster gods' around, having fun a human's expense. I suggest they could be behind the puzzling crop circle phenomena; the LDE's (Long Delayed Echoes) enigma where radio/radar pulses sent out are delayed in their return, cause or causes unknown; pulling the wool over the flying saucer related contactees' eyes causing them to honestly relate tales that have absurdity written all over them; and having wicked fun at the expense of SETI (Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) scientists by broadcasting brief non-repeating radio signals to their radio telescopes that have the hallmarks of intelligence but leave the scientists frustrated because they can't be decoded (too brief) and the can't be verified because they are one-offs. By the by, the Monotheistic God and hangers on most certainly have no tricksters in their midst - no entity in the Bible has any sense of humor whatsoever!

Science librarian; retired.

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Was Jesus Christ An 'Ancient Astronaut'?

Erich von Daniken - of 'ancient astronaut' fame (though hardly the one and only in that field, he wasn't the first to think up the 'ancient astronaut' idea, but he really helped to popularize it) - has had many best selling book titles exploring that theme, when translated into English (von Daniken was Swiss) became known as "Chariots of the Gods"; "Gods from Outer Space" and several others of like ilk. Presumably the 'gods' refer to the general run of polytheistic gods. But the back jacket cover of my "Chariots of the Gods" tome he asks the question 'was God an astronaut?' presumably the monotheistic God. Of course the plural gods could incorporate the singular God. In any event, the index to either of these first two noted volumes doesn't mention Jesus Christ (hereafter J.C.). I suspect the main reason why, was that von Daniken focused more on archaeology and artefacts, and there just isn't much in the way of J.C. archaeology and artefacts. I personally think mythology offers an equally if not better field in which to play, and there's a lot of J.C. mythology. The question I now ask, was J.C. an 'ancient astronaut'?

If you're a rational being you probably tend to think all things supernatural (ghosts, telekinesis, astrology, deities, etc.) are a load of codswallop. On the other hand, you, as a rational being, probably acknowledge there's historical evidence that J.C. existed, though that's not accepted by all scholars. If so, if you think J.C. really existed, you have a problem since J.C. is considered by the multitudes to be a supernatural being. But, that paradox can be resolved, not just by denying J.C.'s very existence, but somehow attributing J.C.'s so-called supernatural abilities in a more, well not so much a down-to-earth way as in an up-to-space context. The very question explains all - was J.C. an 'ancient astronaut'? That is, was J.C., instead of a supernatural being, an extraterrestrial being?

Let's start at the beginning.

We have no idea what date J.C. was 'born', if a virgin birth can be interpreted as being somehow naturally born. The 25th of December is a pure invention on the part of the Christian Church - even the exact year is uncertain. The so-called 'Star of Bethlehem' is of little use. Despite speculation that the 'star' was a conjunction of two or more stellar and/or planetary objects, the 'star' would still resolve itself into two or more points of light, even though apparently in very close proximity. Further, that two or three individual points of light connection would also have been obvious to observers in the days and weeks before (as the points of light grew closer together) and after (as they drew apart again). A supernovae or a comet would have been visible for many days' even weeks. A 'shooting star' would visually last way too short an interval. No, the 'star' must have been a one-off short duration event. Let's call a spade a spade here - the 'star' was a classic UFO sighting!

Piling on the speculation, let's say our UFO was, say if not the Starship Heaven (the extraterrestrial and 'ancient astronaut' God's spacecraft), at least a shuttlecraft from same. If the infant J.C. were, in a manner of speaking 'beamed down', well that would be something akin to a 'virgin birth'. Modern UFO abduction lore would suggest that our modern aliens, the greys say, do have some sort of beaming technology.

Now it's my understanding that there is quite some considerable 'missing time' gap between J.C.'s early years, and the start of his 'ministry' at roughly age 30 or thereabouts. J.C. apparently went walkabout for quite a while and any official J.C. biography will have a large timeline gap in it. That a person of such importance as to attract a crowd at his 'virgin' birth, the messiah, the Son of God, could just vanish for years on end just staggers the imagination. The question is where did J.C. go for all those years? Perhaps he returned home for a bit of R&R, or reflection. My best guess is that J.C. returned home (somewhere out there) for instruction, training and overall preparedness for what was to come, that is, his 'ministry' or whatever. Again, it is strange that someone of his historical stature would have just vanished off the face of the planet for quite some considerable time.

Then we have the so-called 'miracles of Jesus' which tend to fall into four categories: exorcisms; control over nature; medical cures; and raising the dead;. Even if J.C. existed, there's no consensus that he performed anything supernatural as in miracles. In fact, just one general miracle is mentioned in all four of the Gospels - feeding the multitudes with loaves and fishes on apparently two occasions. That might be explainable - a simple cell phone call to God on the Starship Heaven - "Hey Daddy, can you beam me down some more supplies please?" Somehow along the line, Matthew, Mark, Luke or John overlooked one or more of J.C.'s other miraculous accomplishments. In fact, slightly less than half of J.C.'s miracles merit only a single mention from one of the four Gospels. Further, many of J.C.'s miracles seem pretty trivial like walking on water and cursing a fig tree. Anyway, I don't see anything here that's beyond the technical capabilities of an advanced extraterrestrial civilization.

Exorcisms - even ordinary Catholic priests can cast out a minor demon or two, but of course if there no such thing as demons then there's nothing to actually exorcise. Instead, just use the application of a bit of mumbo-jumbo; the power of suggestion; the application of a bit of pop psychology - that should do the trick. The placebo effect 'cures' the demonized.

Control over nature - well nothing a bit of slight-of-hand coupled with some sophisticated technology, including the 'beam me up Scotty' variety couldn't accomplish. Sure, some of J.C.'s miracles appear impressive, but if Matthew, Mark, Luke and/or John could witness some 20th and 21st Century technology, what tales I'm sure they would spin!

Cures - nothing modern medicine couldn't handle. To the simple peasants of 2000 years ago, from their point of view, our 21st Century MD's do a bang up job in cures for probably most of the ailments that would have inflicted them.

Raising the dead - or was it walking up the sleeping as J.C. himself admitted in one of only three such cases involving him? Actually, and again from the perspective of 2000 years down the track, our modern medical technology does a reasonable job in resurrections of the apparently (i.e. - those under general anaesthesia) and sometimes even clinically dead, via the use of electric heart thumpers, administering oxygen, etc. Then there's that other J.C. resurrection - J.C.'s own return to the 'living'. If J.C. appeared to people post execution, well it's amazing what holographic projections can do, especially if you have no concept of hologram technology. Of course maybe the extraterrestrial medical technology available on the Starship Heaven could resurrect the dead or the fact that J.C. was an extraterrestrial - he didn't have purely human physiology - might also explain it.

One other thought at this particular juncture comes to mind. One often repeated theme in mythology when it comes to the gods is the conflict between father and son. Sooner or later, the son grows up and ultimately poses a threat to daddy and daddy's power. Gods were known to plot against their own kids, sometimes swallowing their newborn in order to prevent any further on down-the-track rivalry for power with their legitimate heirs. Daddy gods could be and often were jealous of their own offspring. So what about the relationship between J.C. and God?

Well our monotheistic God is indeed a jealous God by His own admission via the Ten Commandments, so it stands to reason that He's going to be miffed that His son J.C. has stolen His limelight. That is, J.C. had achieved better P.R. overall and perhaps a greater following than God Himself commanded 2000 years ago. However, God laughs last and best because obviously J.C. didn't get to follow Dad home, alive at least, since he of course met his waterloo nearly 20 centuries ago. One would think that an all-powerful God could have easily saved His son from execution via The Cross, if He had wanted to. However, allowing the execution to go ahead was a really easy and guilt-free way of eliminating a future rival. Actually our extraterrestrial 'God' wasn't totally without compassion for His executed son (the straw that broke the camel's back?), so before departing He no doubt 'beamed' J.C.'s body aboard His Starship Heaven, and in so doing explains J.C.'s resurrection and his empty tomb!

What I'm speculating here is that God has left the building. The basis for suggesting this is that even if you take the evidence for God's existence as revealed in the Bible at face value - burning bushes, pillars of salt, universal floods, etc. there has been nothing one can hang one's hat on for the past several thousand years in the way of evidence for God. No interviews, no photographs, no new Commandments, no verified miracles that God and only a God could preform, total and apparent willful ignoring of the pope's prayers for all the sorts of things popes go on and on about (like praying for world peace - a futile gesture if ever there was one), etc. Now, if God were really not God, but 'God', an extraterrestrial, well Starship Heaven and crew might have left the building (Planet Earth) eons ago and sought greener pastures. I mean God's Old Testament temper tantrums got Him nowhere; we still take His name in vain and curse Him "God damn it"; His Ten Commandments are often ignored by the great unwashed; J.C. seems to get more press coverage and positive P.R. as noted above; God has lots of competition from other deities, as well as other goods and services that rival His. I mean God can no more compete with prime time reality television and rap music and cell phones and iPods and the Internet's MySpace and Facebook, than J.C. can now compete with consumerism and commercialism on the 25th of December! No, I think 'God' (the extraterrestrial since I don't believe the supernatural God exists) has voluntarily give humanity the 'big finger' and taken his bat and ball and gone home to sulk. Or perhaps 'God' has been involuntarily exiled. I mean if 'God' exists, then perhaps the 'gods' must also exist, and because there are many, many 'gods', (in this context God is outnumbered many thousands upon thousands to one) well I mean even the schoolyard bully can be sent packing with tail tucked between legs if enough of the bullied gang up and fight back. There's no love lost between God and the gods since God ascended the Top Dog throne and Commanded that the gods be considered persona non-grata.

However, that aside, J.C.'s 'mission' seems to have been somewhat akin to our terrestrial missionaries who spread out to the four 'corners' of the globe, including way too often knocking on your door; spreading the 'good word' (although often that's often different words for different missionaries). So, J.C. comes to Earth (probably via Dad's Starship Heaven) to spread the good news about intelligent life in space, our 'space brothers', which was totally misinterpreted and moulded into a supernatural context by our ancient ancestors. That's understandable - J.C.'s strutting his high tech stuff wouldn't be comprehensible to the masses 2000+ years ago.

I've deliberately used the phrase 'space brothers' above, because I want to make a connection between J.C. as an angelic-like extraterrestrial being, and the way more recent (1950's) contactees who claimed to have had personal contact with and messages from angelic-like extraterrestrial beings, often called by the contactees our 'space brothers' who have come to Earth in their 'flying saucers*'.

The contactees were often bucketed as total loonies back then (in the 50's) by the mainstream, even mainstream people interested in extraterrestrial life and UFOs, including myself. That's no less so today if someone is still foolish enough to mention them - like me here and now. But a question remains on the grounds of 'innocent until proven guilty', did the contactees (collectively) invent these angelic-like extraterrestrial beings with the intent of fraud; or to have some fun and hoax the public and pull the wool over their unsuspecting eyes; or perhaps they just, collectively, had some serious mental issues, say delusions of sorts. Or, perhaps the contactees were relating the truth as they thought they had experienced it, when perhaps the angelic-like extraterrestrial beings were being less than 100% honest with them for reasons best known to themselves, though one can speculate.

In the light of J.C. as a role model, passing himself off as a deity acceptable to the populace rather than as a technologically advanced extraterrestrial which might be beyond the comprehension of that same populace, so too in the 1950's our 'space brothers' only told as much of their story as would be comprehensible to the relatively simple people of that era. Now truthfully, the contactees (George Adamski say as an example of the general contactee stereotype) were relatively simple folk. They weren't university deans, or theoretical physicists, or four-star generals, or diplomatic statesmen and legal eagles and MD's, etc. That brings up an obvious question, why would our 'space brothers' bother with the great unwashed when they could just as easily land on the White House lawn and be addressing Congress within hours? Well, back to J.C. as template, the contactees, simple folk, were the sort of folk that - if you believe traditional Biblical J.C. mythology - J.C. would have associated with. However, the contactees were fed enough bovine fertilizer that their idealistic philosophical messages got buried along with their tall tales of trips to Venus and Saturn, etc., where the 'space brothers' lived. Although then again, you have that angelic-like ancient Near Eastern goddess Inanna or Inana (Ishtar) identified with the celestial planet Venus, so who knows where the 'gods' have actually set up camp!

Or did those 50's idealistic 'space brother' philosophical messages really get buried? Perhaps our 'space brothers' are a bit more clued than given credit for.

I can't help but wonder, maybe it's no coincidence that almost immediately following the heyday of the contactees came the era of the Hippies and counterculture with their idealistic philosophical concepts (influences which have filtered down to this very day and age) of "hell no, we won't go"; burn your draft card; bra-burning; flower-power; love; peace; brotherhood (and sisterhood); the dawning of the Age of Aquarius; free love, drop in, tune out, etc. You can't help but feel that the Biblical J.C. as generally described, wouldn't have fitted right into that picture. J.C. might have been more at home with people who smoked pot and attended Woodstock than lunching with politicians and generals smoking cigars, drinking scotch-on-the-rocks and sanctioning the dropping of napalm and Agent Orange on Vietnam.

So, was J.C. an 'ancient astronaut'? Only you can be the judge.

*Contactees didn't use the term UFOs or the phrase 'unidentified flying objects' because to them there was nothing unidentified about them.

Science librarian; retired.

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Proof in the Stars? Astronomy Holds Key to Alien Abduction

It is not usually easy to validate claims made by UFO witnesses, and it is especially difficult in those cases in which an abduction seems to have taken place. The real complication occurs when hypnosis is used to investigate missing time in conjunction with the abduction.

In the case of the very well-known abduction of Betty and Barney Hill in 1961, many individual hypnosis sessions were conducted three years later by Dr. Benjamin Simon, a psychiatrist with a long history of using medical hypnosis to recover repressed memories of traumatic experiences, especially those that occurred on the battlefield during World War II. Simon knew nothing about UFOs, yet felt it was his duty to elicit details from Betty and Barney under very deep hypnosis to try to determine what happened during their encounter with a strange space vehicle and eleven alien beings.

Following the pent up emotion released by the Hills while in their separate hypnotic states, Simon induced amnesia in each of them in order to prevent them from discussing what they were beginning to recall. This allowed for careful cross comparison between their distinct accounts.

One key validating revelation was Betty's conversation with an alien about a three-dimensional model or map (probably a hologram) that was shown to her after she asked where they were from. There was a pattern of a dozen or so lights (stars) connected with three types of lines indicating heavy trade routes, light trade routes and occasional expeditions. Betty knew little of astronomy and was unable to explain where she was in the model. Simon instructed her to draw it after she indicated she could remember what it looked like. The drawing was subsequently included by John G. Fuller in his best-selling book, The Interrupted Journey.

At first there seemed to be no way to determine if the map had any meaning. After all, our galaxy, the Milky Way, has at least two hundred billion stars. Fortunately, a brilliant woman, Marjorie Fish, visited Betty to get more details about the map, in spite of fact that Fish was dubious about the Hills' assertion that the alien beings were humanoid. Nonetheless, over a period of a few years and more interviews with Betty, Fish built about twenty-six different three-dimensional bead and fishing line models. Her goal was to find a 3-D pattern to match the two-dimensional pattern that Betty had drawn.

I had been favorably impressed by Betty and Barney when we met in Pittsburgh in 1968 and when I read The Interrupted Journey and Fuller's Look Magazine articles about the Hills. My colleague, Coral Lorenzen, International Director of the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization--one of the two major UFO groups at the time--asked me as a scientist to assist Fish in communicating the results of her research. I agreed, and visited her during one of my lecture tours. I also helped her explain her work at a meeting at Adler Planetarium in Chicago and during a presentation at a Mutual UFO Network Symposium in Akron.

Believing Fish to be objective and credible, I published the first article about her work in Saga Magazine and later arranged to interview her and Betty for my documentary film, "UFOs ARE Real." I also convinced the editor of Astronomy Magazine, Terence Dickinson, to speak with her and to publish an article, "The Zeta Reticuli Incident," about her work. It ultimately received more response than any article Astronomy had ever published, before or since.

Also appearing in my documentary was a professor of astronomy at Ohio State University, Dr. George Mitchell, who had been helpful to Fish in obtaining closely-held star catalogs. He used one of her large models as a teaching tool and testified as to her care and accuracy in constructing the models.

Through her detailed and careful research, she was eventually able to identify all the stars in the pattern, and found that all of the pattern stars were sun-like (notwithstanding that fewer than 5 percent of the stars within 55 light years of the Sun are sun-like). Some stars are too old, too new, too bright, too dim, or vary too much in the intensity of their energy production rate to be sun-like, or they have very close companion stars making it difficult to maintain stable planetary orbits in the vicinity. The pattern stars are also, amazingly enough, in a plane, like slices of pepperoni on a thin pizza rather than spread all about like raisins in a loaf of raisin bread. This makes travel between the stars much easier. The pattern is definitely not coincidental.

And most remarkably, Fish identified the base stars as Zeta 1 and Zeta 2 Reticuli in the southern sky constellation Reticulum, but only after much better data on the distances to nearby stars was obtained and used to rebuild the models. Nobody building a model before the Hill experience would have obtained the right identification. A unique twosome, Zeta 1 and 2 Reticuli are the closest pair of sun-like stars in our entire local neighborhood. They are only 1/8 of a light year apart from each other, only 39.2 light years away from earth and a billion years older than the sun. These two stars had never been highlighted as special before Fish's discoveries. It makes sense that they would be the hub of the local neighborhood.

The cosmic perspective for intelligent inhabitants of a planet around Zeta 1 or 2 Reticuli would be very different than that for an Earthling, as the sun is thirty-five times farther away from the nearest star than the distance between Zeta 1 and Zeta 2. We Earthlings are out in the boondocks with no other star close by. However, from a planet orbiting around either of these stars, the other star is visible to the eye all day long, and planets around the other star would be directly observable. No inferences would be necessary. Even with our primitive equipment, at such a close distance we could determine, from the composition of the atmosphere around these planets, if biological activity were present.

Residents of Zeta 1 and 2 would have a much greater incentive to undertake interstellar travel than we have here on Earth. They would also have had much more time for the development of advanced travel technology with their billion year head start on us. Technological progress invariably comes from doing things differently in an unpredictable way and we primitives have already determined methods for star travel.

The star map work done by Marjorie Fish was a crucial factor, along with others, in the general acceptance of the Hill story of abduction. Her work was also the target of debunkers and skeptics, including Carl Sagan, who misrepresented Fish's methods and her results. These attacks along with many others on the Hill case, such as in the TV program, "Cosmos," are discussed in detail in my book, co-authored by Betty's niece, Kathleen Marden, Captured!: The True Story of the World's First Documented Alien Abduction, The Betty and Barney Hill UFO Experience.

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The Phoenix Lights

Perhaps of all UFO sightings in recorded history so far, the incidents that occurred on March 13, 1997, in Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. stand out as the most credible. This is one of the rare cases, possibly the only case, where credible footage of the UFO sighting was not only available, but was also broadcast on CNN, the world's leading news network.

What makes the video footage even more credible is that there is footage taken by different people in different parts of town. Most of this footage shows eight orbs over the Phoenix sky. Seven of these orbs floated together, while an eighth was alone at a distance (the lone orb can be seen at the middle left of the photo at the left). This event was reported on CNN, USA Today and also the Discovery Channel. Many people in the world now know about the "Phoenix Lights" sighting. But what many may not know is that this was only one piece of a much larger puzzle, because on that night in March 1997, there were several UFO sightings reported over this area, including a large boomerang shaped craft, a top-shaped spinning craft, and a mammoth 3.2 kilometer wide triangle-shaped craft. There are also several witnesses.

At around 6:55 P.M. (Pacific Time), a young man in Henderson, Nevada reportedly witnessed a V-shaped object, with six large lights on its leading edge. He described the object as coming from the northwest and described it as being the size of a "Boeing 747", it generated a sound like a "gushing wind" and as it continued towards the southeast, it soon disappeared over the horizon.

The next reported sighting was from a former police officer in Paulden, Arizona. He had just left his home at 8:15 P.M. (Mountain Time), and was driving with his family. He described what he saw as "a very strange cluster of distinctly red-orange lights, which consisted of 4-5 lights in the lead, followed by a single light which appeared to be standing back from the others. The lights in the lead gave the impression of being in a 'V' formation, somewhat like a wedge or boomerang in shape." Each individual light in the formation seemed to the witness to consist of two separate sources of orange light.

Within minutes of these sightings, there were a barrage of phone calls coming in to the National UFO center, the police, local news media and the nearby Luke Air Force Base (LAFB) about similar sightings from nearby towns.

All this pointed to the fact that several objects, all markedly different in appearance, and most of them almost unbelievably large, passed over Arizona that night.

One group of three witnesses, located just north of Phoenix, reported seeing a huge, V- shaped craft with five lights on its ventral surface, eerily glide over them. The witnesses emphasized how gigantic the object was, as it blocked out up to 70-90 degrees of the sky. This craft was also photographed and the picture published in USA Today.

Another group of witnesses reported the largest craft of all, which was reportedly to be over 3 kilometers wide. This massive craft is known as the "Big Black Triangle".

This gigantic craft was first seen at close range over north Phoenix between 8:30 and 8:45 P.M. where the key witnesses (real estate people who subdivided the area) estimated its size to be as much as 3.2 kilometers wide as its wingtip lights fell over streets that are 2.8 kilometers apart. Its flight path brought it low to the ground (about 2,000 feet) where it was seen to not only have dozens of lights along its leading edges, but also a row of windows wherein the silhouettes of "people" were observed! At some point further south, other witnesses reported that they saw nothing but the row of windows with silhouetted beings as all the other lights were turned off at this point. Soon after the craft was seen by a family travelling on Interstate-10 freeway from Tucson to Phoenix.

To estimate the size of this object, consider the following testimony from this family. The witnesses, who were travelling in their car on I- 10 near Casa Grande said the object was so large that they could see one "wing tip" of the object from the left window of their car, and the other "wing tip" from the right. They estimated they were driving at approximately 130 kilometers per hour, and they remained under the object for between one and two minutes as it moved in the OPPOSITE direction! They emphasized how large the object was as it blocked out the sky over their car. They say that the ship was large enough for a C5-A Galaxy or "Condor" troop transport plane (the largest conventional aircraft known) to land upon it! The craft had definite structure to it, and a flat-blue black color like that of a shotgun barrel. They also reported seeing rectangular "panel-like" structures on the underside of the craft.

There were also reports of a large circular saucer shaped object that was an estimated 1.6 kilometers in diameter. This was first witnessed by a retired airline pilot, his sons and a friend, and seen coming down Scottsdale Road at about 10:20 P.M. This craft made a turn towards Sky Harbor where it intersected air traffic before disappearing from view over South Mountain. The corroborating central Phoenix witness, also a former pilot during the Vietnam War and retired U.S. Marshal, described how the craft both reflected the city lights on its underbelly and blocked out the stars with its upper half, attesting to its being a single craft of spectacular "mile-wide" proportions. This witness also claims that he videotaped the entire episode, but the videotape mysteriously disappeared in what may be a real life case of MIB (Men In Black).

Bill Greiner, a truck driver who never believed in UFOs till that night saw two large top-shaped spinning objects with a pulsating ring of red-light around it. Bill said that 3 fighters from LAFB tried to intercept the objects, but they suddenly shot off vertically into the sky, leaving the F-15s far below.

An another interesting aspect to the Phoenix Lights case is that despite several witnesses who say at least 6-8 pairs of F-15 fighters from the nearby LAFB were scrambled to intercept these gigantic UFOs, the Air Force denies it. LAFB public relations people have attributed the strange lights in the video to be "flares" dropped by an Air Force aircraft. However, all experts agree that the characteristics of flares are very different from what was seen on that night. No flares can last for as long as the lights over Phoenix did. Also, flares emit smoke trails as they drop, and they do not stay at a stationary altitude. This announcement clearly indicates an attempt to block the truth. The LAFB also denies that they received calls that night of strange occurrences over the Phoenix skies. But telephone records of scores of people clearly indicate otherwise. They called LAFB and reported these sightings.

Despite thousands of witnesses, videotape aired on CNN and the clear cover-up by authorities, this case was virtually blocked out from the print media, until USA Today did a front page article on this on June 18, 1997.

What really happened that night? Why is there a cover-up? Why is the media not helping in getting to the bottom of this case?

One thing is for certain, the Phoenix Lights sightings are humanity's clearest indication, so far, that we are not alone.

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Famous UFO Sightings: The Kenneth Arnold Case

The Kenneth Arnold UFO Sighting is one of the most monumental UFO sightings in history. The sighting was the first report of "flying saucers" as we know them today. What happened that day would forever put Kenneth Arnold in the books of UFO History.

Kenneth Arnold was a private pilot, who was flying near Mount Rainier on a clear and sunny day on June 24th, 1947. He was flying a Call Air A2 to Yakima, Washington, but had changed his flight path after learning of a reward being offered for the recovery of a crashed U.S. Marine Corps plane near Mt. Rainier. Arnold had hoped to cash in on the reward, but instead had an experience that managed to capture the attention of the world.

Arnold had given up his search after a while and decided to head back east towards Yakima. He noticed a bright flash in the sky and assumed that he was too close to another aircraft, but was unable to spot any nearby airplanes.

Around 30 seconds after seeing the first flash of light, Kenneth Arnold saw more flashes and soon realized that the flashes were reflections from something in the skies with him. Because of the formation the objects were flying in, Arnold first thought that they could be geese. However, after noticed the speed of their movement and metallic appearance, Arnold quickly ruled out geese.

He described the objects as flying erratically and compared them to "saucers skipping on water". He also pointed out that one of the objects (nine total) had a different shape that resembled a v shape or crescent. Reporters would later coin the phrase 'Flying Saucers" based on Arnold's description.

The objects were later estimated to be rather large, possibly over 100 feet and stretched out in formation over a span of five miles. The objects demonstrated speeds that were impossible at the time and were about three times the maximum speed of any aircraft in existence at the time of his sighting.

After landing Arnold told of his experience and although some didn't believe him, other did. Allegedly, Some former Army pilots talked to Arnold and told him that they had been briefed before going into combat and told "they might see objects of similar shape and design as I described" Arnold said that the pilots assured him that what he had seen was real and that he was not insane.

The reports of the Kenneth Arnold UFO Sighting had soon made their way around the world, making Arnold rather famous for his experience. Arnold vowed to purchase a camera and take it with him on all future flights.

Another similar sighting was reported ten days later that helped to strengthen Arnold's story. So what happened on June 24th, 1947? Did Kenneth Arnold become one of the first witnesses in history to flying saucers? Did he stumble upon a military test flight, using new technology? Either way, the Kenneth Arnold UFO Sighting will forever be one of the most important UFO Sightings in history.

Latest UFO Sightings

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Monday, March 5, 2012

Pompeii the City

In about 700 B.C., the city of Pompeii was established. It eventually grew to a population of about 20,000 residents at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, a volcano that had not seen activity in 3,000 years. Ironically enough, the residents of Pompeii had all sorts of myths about angry gods and goddesses that would rain down terror on people, but not of them included volcanoes or lava being the demise of anyone. In fact, they used Mount Vesuvius to graze their animals and also to grow grapes for the production of wine.

On August 24, 79, Mount Vesuvius suddenly blew. It was apparently completely unexpected and caught the people totally off guard. This was apparent by the many bodies that were found. Many were curled into a defensive position, covering children, and even holding a flask of wine. The ash from the volcano blanketed them in extreme heat and killed them all.

The city itself was 163 acres and was surrounded by a protective wall. Their roads were made of large, flat stones with gutters running along side them to give any runoff a place to go. There were also fountains alongside the road for people to get hydrated and give their animals a drink. Their homes were built from stone and brick and had an open area in the middle with a pool for the family's water and a place for air to circulate into the residence. They also had dining rooms for eating and relaxing. Their benches were stationary, but they had tables that could move so they could put it up to the benches to eat, but move it away to sit and relax.

When the city of Pompeii was first discovered by archaeologists, they realized that the locals and diggers had been using the site as their personal treasure box. The ash was easy to dig through, so anyone willing to do so could find all sorts of trinkets, jewelry, and precious metals such as gold. In the process, many stones and statues were broken up to make removal easier. Nonetheless, there was still plenty for scientists to find. In fact, many of the bodies that were found were doing their normal everyday stuff; walking down the street with a child, drinking from the fountain, and sitting at home.

Pompeii is one of the most amazing discoveries because the ash from Mount Vesuvius preserved it so well. Less the plundering over the years, everything was preserved almost perfectly. Of all the ways for an ancient civilization to go, this has to be about the best.

Town of Pompeii

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Celtic Mythology Facts About King Arthur

The myth of King Arthur, as a legendary figure, is, by and large, a mystery to historians and folklorists alike. There are several figures in early British history who correspond to later folktales and myths about him, but little to no indication as to which is actually the 'real' King Arthur, or even if there was a real King Arthur. Despite this, he remains a popular figure, both in literature and history.

At his core, King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to diverse histories and romances, led the defense of England against Saxon invaders in the 6th Century. While the details are mostly composed of anecdotes from various medieval romances and folktales, there is evidence of a single figure uniting the feuding leaders of England to meet the Saxon threat at various points throughout the 6th Century. The question is, which is the real deal?

King Arthur Biography?
Historically speaking, there are several candidates for the title. Some scholars believe that Arthur was most likely a Romano-British landholder named Ambrosius Aurelianus, who united his neighbors against the invading Saxons sometime in the 5th or 6th Century. Other scholars believe that Arthur may have been the leader of the descendants of the Sarmatian force sent by the Romans to bolster their legions in Britain several centuries previous to Arthur's appearance in texts. The Sarmatians were an Eastern European tribe of nomads famous for their skill with swords and lances, their heavy armor (much heavier than anything worn by any Western European culture at the time) and their propensity for mounted combat. The descendants of the Sarmatians settled near what became Lancashire, in England. There is also evidence that King Arthur may actually have been King Riothamus, who was supposedly the 'King of the Britons' in the Year 470, and who appeared frequently in Roman and Byzantine records from that time.

King Arthur Story
Still others argue that Arthur is, in fact, a completely fictitious creation, or even a left-over Celtic deity given a makeover. The strongest element of proof for the 'fictional character' theory comes from Geoffrey of Monmouth, author of The History of the Kings of Britain, who, in 1138, wrote of a fanciful Arthur, close to the popular conception of him, as a King guided by Merlin and the Grail to unite England. Other works followed by a variety of authors, adding new elements to the legend (Lancelot, for instance, was not added until centuries later) and discarding old. Celtic symbolism and tradition was discarded in favor of Christian, and there is evidence that Monmouth's original work dealing with Arthur was lifted wholesale from Welsh or Cornish legends. Later historical works made an attempt to completely excise any mention of Arthur whatsoever, and this, in turn, has led to a widespread belief among some academics that King Arthur was wholly invented.

The story of King Arthur's quest for the holy grail, that most pure of Celtic symbols, continues to enthrall readers and probably will for eons to come.

However, whether King Arthur was real or fictional, he remains a strong influence on Celtic popular culture, as both an allegory for Christ/Christianity/England itself as well as an important part of the mythic past. Whatever his origins, he will be around for a long while yet.

Tim Lazaro is a Celtic Symbols enthusiast. He owns and maintains All About Celtic Symbols, a resource for Celtic symbols lovers and historians.

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Sunday, March 4, 2012

2012 - Year of the Return of Quetzalcoatl?

Among the wilder predictions for 2012 is that Quetzalcoatl will return that year. Supposedly this is written in the Mayan prophecies.

There are some problems with this.

First of all, Quetzalcoatl, the plumed serpent, was not a Mayan deity. He was Aztec, and probably based ultimately on a real Aztec king whose life details are lost in the mists of antiquity.

Now, the Mayas did have a feathered god, Kukulkan, who we may take to be roughly equivalent. So, did they (or the Aztecs) really have a prediction about Kukulkan/Quetzalcoatl returning at the end of the ages?

This is where we run into a another big problem. The bulk of the Mayas' writings, or codices, were destroyed by the Spanish, who considered them works of the Devil and an impediment to imposing Christianity on the native Mexicans.

The writings that survive are at best hazy as to predicting the future coming-down of any god, let alone Kukulkan (Quetzalcoatl) specifically. Nor are they clear as to what a returning god will be coming back to do.

Some groups -- notably the Mormons -- identify the Aztec or Mayan deity with Jesus, who, of course, is expected by many Christians to descend to earth in a second coming to take believers to heaven with him, or to judge humanity, or both.

Others posit Quetzalcoatl to be a kind of New Age avatar who will appear by the magic date of December 21, 2012 to lead us into a golden era of peace, harmony and abundance for all.

Yet others say he is just one more persona of Satan, perhaps even the Antichrist who will rule the world for a time until the great battle of Armageddon.

As you can see, the myths and prophecies surrounding the return of Quetzalcoatl are hopelessly tangled.

I believe something big is indeed going to happen in 2012, but I'm not spending my time trying to decipher ambiguous ancient tales about feathered gods. I would rather analyze current events and their meaning in the larger picture, and make preparations to survive the coming storms, whatever they may be.

What Is the Real Scoop on 2012?

Don't believe everything you hear about 2012 and what it could mean to you personally -- but don't disbelieve everything, either. The truth is out there and can be known. See the 2012 Predictions site at

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